Rresource allocation guide in project management

Resource Allocation: A Guide on How to Apply it on Project Management

April 28, 2023
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Resources are limited and the most expensive investment for any business. Therefore, how an organization utilizes its scarce resources directly impacts ROI. Project delivery is adversely affected unless the right resources are allocated to the right project.

A resource manager needs to consider employees’ skills, qualifications, experience, cost, availability, and specific interests before they are assigned to a project.

Allocating an experienced resource for a generic position can cause lower employee engagement and spike the project resource cost. On the contrary, a junior resource taking up an important role will create employee burnout and affect delivery.

The resource allocation method is an essential component of the project management process. Many successful companies have implemented a comprehensive resource allocation framework with the help of appropriate tools and techniques.

According to a 2017 PMI study, “62% of organizations use resource management tools for resource allocation. “

This guide covers the essential aspects and objectives of resource allocation in project management. Before delving deep, let us start with the basics, such as the definition of resource allocation.

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1. What is resource allocation in project management?

Resource allocation in project management involves identifying and assigning the best available resources with the right skills to every project for a specific period. It also monitors the resource’s workload throughout the project life cycle and helps reassign them if necessary.

Efficient allocation of resources ensures that the right employees are working on the right project at the right time and costs.

Types of resources for a project:

On an enterprise level, resources can be human and non-human. Some examples of types of resources for a project include:


They constitute team members or employees and contingent staff with different skill sets and form the backbone of any project.


It includes everything from software to hardware, depending on the organization’s type.


It comprises the environment needed for executing a project, such as a conference room or office space.


These are the consumables required to generate outputs. For example, office stationery and raw materials to build a house.


Finance needed to purchase any of the above resources.

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Now that you’ve understood the basics of the resource allocation framework let’s dive deep into some examples:

2. Examples of resource allocation in project management

An efficient resource allocation strategy allows the effective distribution of the available resources to several projects. However, this activity also requires regular updates to achieve the future goal of the organization.

A project manager often needs to carry out delivery responsibilities with fewer resources. So how do project resource allocation under these circumstances? Does one identify each resource’s primary skill set and assign them to open positions, or is there a better way?

Let’s look at some of the specific resource allocation examples in a project:

  1. Let us take an example of resource allocation in an IT project. Architect positions are critical for delivery. They are expensive and less in numbers. They need to be involved at the beginning of the project for system design-related work. In this case, can I afford to dedicate an architect to a specific project, or do they need to work on multiple projects?
  2. The second example could be when a project manager tries to deliver several projects with fewer resources. Should I put some of the low-priority projects on hold or extend their timeline due to a resource crunch? Shall I allocate my existing resources only to high-priority projects?
  3. In another resource allocation example, let us assume that one has the required capacity and enough work in hand. But there is a mismatch in the skill set among the available resources. So, how do I effectively utilize the existing resources by building secondary skills? Can I risk allocating a resource that matches approximately 60% of the job description?
  4. There are many projects. But the tasks do not require full-time involvement of the resources. In this situation, how do I ensure I do not over/under-allocate human resources?

These are all pertinent questions and do not have any standard answers. The decision on resource allocation in a matrix organization depends on its current situation and immediate priorities. At times resources may need to be out rotated from a low-priority project with suitable backfill depending on business priority. These are examples of resource allocation problems in a dynamic business environment.

These are some of the resource allocation examples. Now let’s learn about some of the problems of the resource allocation process.

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3. What are common problems of resource allocation in project management?

Although resource managers initially conduct the allocation process, continuous change in project demands makes it daunting. Let us analyze some of the common resource allocation problems.

A. Use of legacy tools or spreadsheets:

Many organizations still use homegrown half-baked solutions like spreadsheets for the project resource allocation process because it is readily available. Unfortunately, these legacy tools fail to provide accurate real-time data for resource allocation, leading to discrepancies and double bookings. In addition, spreadsheets are incredibly time-consuming, limiting, and a nightmare to maintain.

According to Marketwatch, 88% of spreadsheets have errors.”

B. Frequent changes in project scope:

In an agile world, the project scope can change anytime during its lifecycle. Changes in project requirements can lead to fluctuating resource demands. So, frequent allocations to meet the dynamic demands become challenging without an updated resource schedule. The sudden closure of a large project will also increase the bench size, that can affect the bottom line.

C. Unable to predict resource availability:

While allocating resources to a project, resource managers typically look at the existing resource pool. Additionally, they need to have a backup contingency resource allocation plan rather than entirely relying on a specific person. For example, some team members can suddenly fall sick, or getting time out of a shared resource may be challenging because of other commitments. Since resource availability can suddenly change, it can be a roadblock in project resource allocation.

the importance of understanding resource availability

D. Project uncertainties causing delays:

Even after meticulously ticking all the checkboxes, such as project scope and constraints, uncertainties can crop up anytime during the project lifecycle. There could be a delay in the project start date, and you may need to block certain resources without billing. Project managers must promptly respond to these uncertainties, e.g., dynamic resource allocation, including juggling resources within projects or reassigning them.

E. Limited resources in a multi-project environment:

Some organizations run multiple projects simultaneously, which means sharing limited resources to complete the delivery. Negotiating with other project managers over the same resources could lead to a change in project priorities for one of them. It also means that one of the other projects gets stalled and eventually delayed.

F. Lack of knowledge and communication:

Sometimes, project managers lack business knowledge. Due to communication gaps among the team members, they cannot estimate the resource requirements on time. With the incorrect resource demand, the project lands up with either an excess or shortfall of resources. It gets noticed during the execution, and the project can get adversely impacted. Excess resources will blow up the project cost, where fewer resources can cause delivery delays.

G. Location and time zone differences:

Due to globalization, many organizations have implemented an onsite/offshore/nearshore strategy to control costs. Resources are allocated in different geographies covering different time zones for the same project. As a result, there is a lack of coordination between the key members, which can cause project delays. Limited overlapping business hours between the two countries can only provide a small window to hold important meetings and knowledge sharing.

Since you are clear about the various problems of resource allocation, let’s see how beneficial it is in project management.

4. Importance of resource allocation in project management

The unavailability of a critical resource can cause project delays and adversely affect overall task dependencies.

According to PMI, “50% of projects fail to deliver on time, out of which 23% cite poor resource allocation as the primary cause.”

A systematic resource allocation process ensures that resources are available when required. Let’s look at some of the benefits of resource allocation in project management.

A. Minimize project resource cost significantly:

Resource allocation tool helps you to identify and allocate the best-fit resource instead of first-visible resources. It enables you to deploy cost-effective global resources across matrix boundaries, reducing project resource costs significantly. Resource allocation in project management maintains profitability by uniformly distributing resources across all projects instead of assigning them to a high-priority one.

Deloitte Global Cost Survey reveals “Cost reduction scores over other business initiatives.”

B. Maximize profitable resource utilization:

Simply allocating resources to projects does not ensure profitability. They could be working on non-billable or mundane operational tasks. Businesses must ensure optimum resource utilization and resource allocation helps achieve that and more. Using real-time information and forecasting methods, resource managers can take corrective measures to avoid under or overallocation of resources in advance. Mobilizing resources from non-billable work and allocating them to strategic/billable work ensures profitability.

How to maximize profitable resource utilization using resource management tool

This article helps you understand the limitations of legacy systems and how a modern resource management solution will assist your business

C. Find the right resource using centralized visibility:

A resource allocation system captures resource-related information in real time and consolidates them on a centralized platform. 360-degree visibility helps allocate resources to projects based on qualifications, skills, experience, availability, costs, and other selection criteria. Centralized visibility and real-time updates avoid data redundancy and discrepancies that could lead to double-booking chaos. It is one of the significant benefits of resource allocation.

D. Deliver projects on time and within budget:

Delivering projects on time and within budget ensures project success, increases client satisfaction, and maintains your organization’s reputation. In addition, if resources are allocated efficiently, it can eliminate the under or over-skilled resources to projects. Under skilled resources cause project delays, whereas overqualified team members can spike project resource costs. Therefore, resource allocation is critical to project management.

E. Diversify employee skill sets for increased billability:

Encouraging employees to possess multiple skills enhances their billability. Allocating resources to different projects allows them to build secondary skills in addition to sharpening their primary skills. Focused training programs and on-the- job-experience further help them to improve their capabilities. Secondary skills come in handy to make them billable if they are not deployable using primary skills.

F. Solve resource constraints with smart allocation techniques:

In a multi-project environment, intelligent allocation of resources involves generating more ROI using the existing pool. What-if analysis allows you to build different scenarios and simulate each using the resource constraints. After comparing and analyzing each scenario, resource managers can help arrive at the best possible outcome. It can then be applied to the project allocation schedule.

G. Improve employee engagement and productivity:

One of the resource allocation best practices involves assigning resources to project tasks based on their skills and interest. Providing an environment for self-development, skill-building, and staying abreast with current technology trends motivate them. By giving them the right opportunities, resource managers can effectively manage the bench and improve overall billability. The employees also feel more responsible and take ownership of their job, which increases engagement and productivity.

Having learned the significance, here are the best resource allocation methods in project management.

5. What are the resource allocation methods in project management?

Resources can be either fully or partially available. Resource managers need to consider this while making allocation decisions that ensure optimum utilization.
So, how do you allocate human resources in a complex project environment? In this section, we describe the essential resource allocation steps in project management.

A. Create a project plan using an appropriate tool:

It is necessary to divide each project into several tasks and create their dependencies. This process is known as the work breakdown structure (WBS), the minimum requirement in starting a project plan. Two tasks can be executed either sequentially or in parallel based on their relationship.

The critical path within a project plan determines the minimum time required to complete the project. This information can be used within a project management tool to provide a Gantt-chart view. Resource allocation is an integral component of this process because resources are assigned to each task for its completion.

B. Identify resource requirements for project tasks:

Once the project is successfully divided into tasks, the resources available can be assigned as appropriate. The task may require both human and non-human resources, depending on the nature of the work. For human resources, it is necessary to identify skills and competencies. For a non-human resource such as machinery, determine the equipment specifications before allocating a task.

PwC Project Management Insights states, “30% of project failure results from lack of resources.”

C. Find available resources with matching skill set:

Using resource allocation software, one can easily identify the availability of a resource within the pool for matching skills. It is also possible to search for equipment with matching specifications that can be used for a specific duration. The allocation tool provides a mechanism to update each resource’s skills and competencies in real-time with proper verification.

D. Bridge the demand-capacity gap using multiple channels:

One can hire or use contingency resources if a human resource with matching requirements does not exist. Similarly, if the equipment is unavailable, it can be taken on lease or procured, depending on the resourcing strategy. All relevant costs need to be factored into project financials. Once the resources are selected for a specific project, the resource allocation process begins.

E. Allocate resources as per demand:

Once the project resources are identified and established, they are assigned to specific tasks. Sometimes the resources may not be available when needed to perform the task. If you opt for a new hire for a specific task, the person may decide not to join at the last moment.

It may be necessary to have a backup plan for this resource. For critical positions, the person could be asked to join a little early so that he/she is available when work starts.

F. Re-allocate resources between projects if required:

Re-allocation of resources is necessary during the project life cycle for various reasons. For example, a resource may have performance issues that may need replacement. A resource with niche skills may be required in another high-priority project.
So, one needs to out rotate the person with a suitable backfill so that the current project does not suffer. Some of the positions can fall vacant due to attrition and need replacing. The project manager also can rotate resources within the same project with different roles.

G. Track and monitor resource usage:

It is necessary to track the performance of each resource to implement an effective resource allocation process. In an ideal situation, there must not be under/ overallocation of resources or over/underutilization of the workforce.

However, it is tough to ensure this for every resource when you have a large pool to manage. The experience of the project manager and some amount of subjectivity plays a big role in deciding this. The dashboards and reports from resource allocation software can help in decision making.

Resource Allocation and its Importance

Now that the strategies are clear, we move on to know how to combat the runtime resource allocation challenges.

6. How to solve runtime resource allocation challenges?

Most of the allocation of resources related activities occur during a project’s initiation phase. The projects can be short-term or long-term, and resource demand can vary. The project may require additional resources or some existing resources may need to be rolled out. But what happens if the initial resource allocation goes wrong as you have onboarded incompatible resources in a hurry?

It can create a significant stumbling block in the delivery and must be course-corrected ASAP. We refer to this situation as a runtime resource allocation challenge. Following resource optimization techniques can mitigate some of these challenges as a part of a new resource allocation strategy.

A. Resource leveling:

In this case, the start and finish dates of the projects are adjusted based on resource constraints. One can adjust the project timeline, but it isn’t easy to get additional resources. For example, research projects may have this kind of flexibility. The manager needs to rework and create a revised schedule to identify the new completion date using available resources.

B. Resource smoothing:

There is no flexibility around the project timeline in resource smoothing, and the work must be completed within a specific time. However, the project manager can add and remove resources during the lifecycle as required to deliver the time-bound project. Resource availability is assumed.

C. Additional mentoring using SME:

If the existing resources do not meet the 100% requirement, they can be given additional opportunities to learn on the job. Positions requiring multiple skills are challenging to fulfill.

A person meeting a certain percentage of the requirement can be given a chance with additional mentoring. It is provided by identified subject matter experts (SMEs) to fast-track his competencies. The SMEs could be either external persons or someone within the project.

D. Independent audit:

An independent audit can be carried out if there are governance issues that have resulted in an improper allocation of resources. Experienced project managers usually do this within the organization or with the help of consulting firms. The person concerned needs to engage with both the client and the internal team to get the project back on track.

If the resource allocation strategy is flawed at the beginning of the project, it can derail the overall delivery objective. It is expensive to revisit allocation of resources when the project is in execution mode. Every project manager would like to avoid such a situation. But unfortunately, this can happen due to many factors that are beyond their control.

Benefits of resource scheduling

Since we have understood how to resolve the runtime challenges, in a nutshell let’s investigate the do’s and don’ts of resource allocation.

7. Summary of resource planning and allocation

In conclusion, we describe some of the resource allocation best practices:


  • Know the scope of your projects before carrying out resource planning and allocation. Is it a big or small project, long or short?
  • Use proper resource planning and allocation tools to get a 360-degree view of all resources. It includes their skill, availability, booking details, etc.
  • Establish a well-documented resource-requesting process
  • Get visibility of your pipeline projects in advance. Plan allocation with ghost resources that can be replaced by existing resources later.
  • Build a strategy for contingent resources and freelancers in addition to full-time resources. Establish a few vendor organizations that can provide resources quickly. In addition, they can be utilized for short-term assignments.
  • Encourage employees to acquire multiple secondary skills in addition to their primary skills. It will help to place them in a billable role.
  • Encourage project managers to accept a certain number of resources matching 60-70% of actual requirements. The remaining skill can be acquired on the job.
  • Plan for runtime resource allocation for some of the high-priority projects.
  • Track your resource scheduling in project management details using allocation reports. Plan for the resources which are getting rolled off from the project on specific dates.
  • Have an overall risk, and its mitigation strategy on resource allocation for individual skill sets with particular emphasis on niche skills


  • Do not over or under allocate resources. Burn rates will ultimately result in unplanned attrition.
  • Balance the resource allocation activities across the organization. Do not give priority to certain projects at the cost of others.
  • Do not allocate contingency resources for long-term or strategic projects. These positions need to be filled with regular full-time employees.
  • Avoid hiring regular employees if you have short-term requirements and do not have visibility for future work. The contingent workforce can do this; otherwise, this will result in a higher bench.
  • Reduce the hiring/firing cycle for the resources. It will give a bad reputation to the organization. However, it can be controlled using effective resource capacity planning.
  • Do not assign critical or expensive resources to non-billable activities. This will be a waste of their skill set. Instead, junior resources or trainees can pick up non-billable tasks.
  • All the high performers should not be allocated to a single project. Each project needs to have a combination of some high achievers, some average, junior resources, and contingency staff. It will help to create a proper band-mix and increase profitability.

8. The Glossary


9. The SAVIOM Solution

SAVIOM is the market leader in offering the most powerful and configurable solutions for managing enterprise resources efficiently and effectively. Having more than 20 years of experience, this Australian based MNC has a global presence in over 50 countries and has helped more than 100 customers address their business needs. SAVIOM also provides smart solutions for project portfolio management, professional service automation, and workforce planning software.

Please contact us to discuss your business challenges and significantly reduce project resource costs!

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